The Centre for
Advanced Studies in Physics (CASP) has emerged, in recent years, as
hub for research and development (R&D) activities at GC University
Lahore. The Centre aims at achieving high quality R & D activities
in experimental physics by imparting training to researchers in high
tech equipment. Establishment of new research laboratories equipped
with sophisticated machinery like Pelletron Accelerator, Scanning
Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM),
Scanning Probe Microscope (5PM), Lasers, Universal Material Testing
Machine and RF Induction Furnace have made the Centre distinct among
other Departments of the University.
began as the “High Tension Laboratory” in I 954 which was
established by Dr. Rafi Muhammad Chaudhry (Sitara-e-Khidmat,
Sitarae-lmtiaz, and Hilal-e-lmtiaz) for carrying out research in
Atomic and Nuclear Physics. Intensive research was carried out in
this laboratory by Dr. R. M. Chaudhry, his students and colleagues.
This laboratory had among other facilities, a 1.2 million Volts
Cockcroft-Walton particle accelerator for conducting experiments in
Atomic and Nuclear Physics. In 1967, the first student of the
Centre, Mr. Mustafa Yar Khan, was awarded the PhD Degree.
Mubarakmand, an Old Ravian remained Director Nuclear Research
Laboratory from 1974 to 1977. Research activities during his tenure
were re-initiated under his dynamic leadership. In recognition of
his meritorious services and outstanding contribution in the field
of Nuclear Physics, Dr. Mubarakmand was awarded- SitaraeImtiaz
(1993), HiIaI-e-lmtiaz (1998) and NishaneImtiaz (2003).
1986, Dr. Muhammad Zakria Butt was instrumental in establishing the
Metal Research Laboratories, equipped with a microprocessor
controlled Universal Materials Testing Machine (100KN capacity)
along with other equipment to study mechanical properties of
crystals and their relationship with microstructure. The Laser
Physics Laboratory was also set up with carbon di-oxide laser to
carry out research in laser induced.
In 1991, the
Board of Governors of Government College Lahore amalgamated all
these laboratories and renamed it as Centre for Advanced Studies in
Physics (CASP) and a new building was constructed for the same.
Major advancements were made in research facilities and
infrastructure during 2002-2008. Degree awarding academic Programmes,
at both Undergraduate and Postgraduate levels were launched in
Electronics and Telecommunications. Both the programmes got
nation-wide recognition and now these programmes have successfully
been shifted under a separate /independent Faculty of Engineering.
Centre is privileged to have Eminent Scientists like Dr. Rafi
Muhammad Chaudhry ( 1954- 1965), Dr. Tahir Hussain (1965-1968),
Nasir Ahmad Qureshi (1968- 1969), Dr. Mannan Yaseen (1969- 1972),
Dr. Mustafa Yar Khan (1972-1974), Dr. Samar Mubarakmand (1974-
1977), Sh. Aftab Ahmad (1977- 1979), Noor Muhammad Chaudhry (1979-
1985), Dr. Muhammad Zakria Butt (1985- 1997), Dr. Shujaat Mahmood
KhaIid (1997- 1998), Dr. Ijaz Mujtaba Ghauri (2000 to 20I I ), Dr.
Riaz Ahmad (2011- till to date).
Keeping in view the tremendous advancements in science and
technology, the Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan was
approached in 2002 for the provision of funds. Grants of Rs. I 90
millions were obtained from the HEC for revamping the existing
facilities and for establishing new research laboratories. A new
multi-story building was constructed to house
The CASP has been divided into
four major research groups:
Materials Science Research Group
Accelerator Research Group
Laser Research Group
Plasma Processing of Materials Group
These groups are carrying out extensive research work
on different research projects. A number research papers are being
published by these groups in the journals of international repute
every year. Conducting of workshops, Conferences and Seminars is a
regular activity arranged by these working groups.
Facilities at CASP
Electron Microscope (SEM)
It can be used
to obtain variety of information of a sample e.g. it can provide
topographical, morphological, compositional and crystallographic
information. It can also be used for quality assurance assessment,
detection of corrosion in metals and to perform qualitative &
semi-quantitative elemental analyses.
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
The TEM is
highly sophisticated sate of the art instrument capable of carrying
out Micro-Structural study of almost every kind of material
including biological, metallic, polymer, and ceramic samples at an
atomic level. It has a magnifying range of 1000-600,000 times with a
very high resolution of 4 A0 (i.e. 4×10-10 m).
The Transmission Electron Microscope installed at CASP is equipped
with EDX system for X-ray micro analyses of the samples.
GCU has the
honor to have this kind of accelerator for the first time in the
country. Pelletron accelerator has two active beam lines; one beam
line is being effectively used for Proton Induced X-Ray Emission
Spectroscopy (PIXE) analysis of materials by different science
departments of the university. The second beam line is used for
irradiation of materials. Thus we can carry out numerous research
projects utilizing ions of different energies up to 4MeV for
characterization and modification of materials.
can be used for indigenous fabrication of different alloys of both
ferrous and non-ferrous metals, to be used for advanced materials
research and development activities.
can be used to perform tensile tests of metals and alloys in the
temperature range -180°C to 600°C. The tensile parameters like yield
stress, ultimate tensile strength, percentage elongation, fracture
toughness etc. can be determined using the computerized analytical
facilities attached with the machine.
Microscope (SPM) is used for surface morphology of almost all
materials i.e. biological, metallic, polymers and ceramic samples at
the atomic level with a three dimensional view. It has the ability
to analyze the sample in any kind of environment, therefore high
vacuum conditions are not required as in case of Electron
tester is used to determine the hardness of different metals, alloys
and polymers etc.
Microscope is suitable for microstructural study of all kind of
samples The CCD camera attached with the scope can capture images
magnified in the range 50 to 1000 times.
type of laser is used for material modification, plasma formation
and pulsed laser deposition of thin films.
and pulsed laser deposition for fabrication of thin films are the
major uses of Excimer laser.
Laser-induced breakdown Spectrometer
breakdown spectroscopy and elemental analysis under different
ambient environments are the major uses of this spectrometer.
This is a
state of the art laser and is widely used for ultrashot laser-matter
interaction processes, femtosecond laser induced spectroscopy and
pulsed laser deposition of thin films.
technology lab contains dense plasma focus and cold plasma devices.
Plasma diagnostics are being done using Langmuir probe and optical
emission spectroscopy (OES). These devices are also used to deposit
the various films on substrates.
preparation lab is equipped with a number of different machines
which can prepare samples according to the requirements of different
High Tech Labs.
activities at CASP are aimed at exploring scientific facts primarily
related to materials analysis and modification with intent to tailor
properties of materials, to check archeological samples for
applications in medicine and to help plan environmental improvement
methods using high tech research equipment of the centre. CASP has
produced scientists who have made their mark in prestigious research
organizations like the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), A.Q.
Khan Research Laboratories, the National Engineering and Scientific
Commission (NESCOM), the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) and
the National Institute of Silicon Technology (NIST). The outgoing
graduates of the Centre are in a great demand at R & D organizations
of the country.
Dr. Rafi Muhammad Chaudhry Chair
The Rafi Muhammad Chaudhry Chair in Experimental Physics has been established at CASP
to pay homage to its founder, Dr. Rafi Muhammad Chaudhry, and to ensure
that his tradition of research continues to burgeon. Dr. Shoaib
Ahmad has been appointed as Rafi Muhammad Chaudhry Professor in
Library provides a collection of information resources for
researchers. A number of computers are also provided for students to
connect to the Internet and access electronic catalogues.